Government of Nepal

Ministry of Industry

Special Economic Zone Authority, Nepal

विशेष आर्थिक क्षेत्र प्राधिकरण, नेपाल

Economic Policies

Nepal is classified as a least developed country on account of a low per capita income of around US$ 311, low contribution of manufacturing sector to GDP (less than 10 percent) and low indices in the social indicators of development The landlocked nature and the rugged mountain terrain of a large part of the country add to the economic rigidities of Nepal.

Nepal started programmes of planned economic development as early as mid fifties with the launching of the first five year Plan in 1956 with others to follow.

The Government has expressed a strong commitment to achieve optimum growth of national production and its equitable distribution. Several new policy measures have been adopted in line with the open, market oriented and liberal economic policy to stabilize the economy and pave the way for accelerated economic, and social development. The monetary policy is being fine‑tuned to increase domestic resource mobilization, enhance efficiency of capital and provide credit to the priority and productive sectors. Steps are also being directed towards maintaining satisfactory balance in internal and external payments. In the field of industry and commerce, government policy is aimed at giving the  private sector a dominant role. Private enterprises are expected to increase efficiency and productivity, in industrial and commercial operations. The Government's role will be that of a facilitator providing infrastructure facilities and a conducive environment in which the private sector could perform its task effectively. Moreover, private investment is also being encouraged in the development of infrastructure and operation and management of services like road, transport, water supply, etc. The government has implemented a bold privatization programme. Likewise‑ private foreign investment has been highly encouraged. The trade policy is also directed towards reducing the trade imbalance through improved import management, export promotion and diversification. To make economy more competitive, tariff rates have been lowered and Nepali currency has been made fully convertible in all current account transactions. Quantitative restrictions and import licensing system are abolished to make congenial and investment friendly economic environment to help promote industrial development and make products more competitive. Export procedures have been simplified and bonded warehouse and duty drawback facilities have been introduced to make trade competitive.

Besides, a wide ranging financial reform measures have also been carried out to strengthen  liberalization process Joint venture banks as well as finance companies have increased significantly in number. The Government has already initiated the effort of legal and procedural arrangements necessary for the implementation of policies for permitting of up to 25 percent foreign investment in oil, (aviation companies and big hotels), water resources (power and drinking water), mines and mineral related industries and goods production and processing sources through stock market. This is in line with the government policy of opening foreign investment through the secondary market. The limitation of 25 percent foreign investment and its scope could be further extended in future based on the experiences. Government owned banks and financial institutions arc also being either restructured of divested. Furthermore, formulation of necessary legislative measures are underway to establish off shore banking facility in Nepal.

Overseas Exports of Nepal

F.Y. 2005/06 (2062/63)

S.No Commodities Value
1 Wooden Carpet 5897627
2 Readymade garments 5420975
3 Hides an Goatskin 292338
4 Tea 98743
5 Pulses (Lentils) 191705
6 Handicrafts 598173
7 Silverware & Jewellery 298873
8 Wollen & Pashmina goods 1665949
9 Towel 107256
10 Wooden  goods 37000
11 Nepalese Paper & Paper Products 378433
12 Micro transformer  
13 Cardamom 114333
14 Sugar 386206
15 Multiple (Folded) or cabled yarn containing 85% or m  
16 Miscellaneous 2826535

Major Trading Partners of Nepal

Imports Values in '000 Rs.

NR S.No. Countries F.Y. 2003/04 F.Y.2004/05 F.Y.2005/06
1 India 78,739,500 88,675,500 109,305,900
2 China P.R 5,433,815 8.254,183 6.635,507
3 Indonesia 3.253,785 5,222,737 5,647,780
4 Singapore 8.698,647 7.746,820 3,375.219
5 Germany 1.977,896 NR 2.761,788
6 Thailand 4.320,169 3,117,568 2.602,072
7 Malaysia 3.676,428 2,820,876 2,474,661
8 Saudi Arabia 2,547,901 3,138.492 2,329,692
9 Japan 1,690,396 2.565,231 1.935,082
10 Korea R. 3,080,644 2,784,650 1,788.882
11 U.S.A NR 1,763,842 NR
12 Hong Kong NR NR NR
  Sub Total 113,419.181 124.326.057 138,856.583
  Other Countries 22,421,154 23,968,172 23.984,141
  Grand Total 135.840,335 148.294,229 162.840,724

Major Trading Partners of Nepal

Exports Values in '000 Rs.

S.No. Countries F-Y 2003/04

F.Y 2004/05

F.Y 2005/06 F.Y. 2002/03
1 India 30,777,100 38,916,900 41,012,600 26913200
2 U.S.A. 9,695,977 7.570.742 6,993,442 12686537
3 Germany 3.567,036 3,121,753 2,843,770 3555327
4 France 581,762 617,800 1,297.493 1070737
5 U.K. 1,677,085 1,050,010 1,184,079 530869
6 Italy 589,370 582,847 712,327 474247
7 Canada 546,403 528.726 644,632 453961
8 Japan 525,601 534,997 572,094 414680
9 Singapore NR NR 322.552 411335
10 Switzerland 306,255 NR 317.668 383651
11 Portugal NR 438,031 NR  
12 Belgium NR 318,982 NR  
13 Bangladesh 421,308 NR NR  
  Sub Total 48,266.589 52,923,775 55,900,657  
  Other Countries' 5,682,825 5,520,046 4,174,117  
  Grand Total 53,949,414 58.443,821 60.074.774  

Data Source: Nepal Overseas Trade Statistics 2002-2003, TPC